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Conjunction & Connectors

Conjunctions are words to connect words or sentences together. Like  a nail, stapler, glue or a tape, a conjunction is a connector. And and But are the most common conjunctions. Sam and Charley are friends. Sam is handsome and hardworking but Charley is glum looking and lazy. In short, we can’t add meaning to a sentence without the correct use of conjunctions or connectors. In higher grammar you will learn conjunctions that connect long sentences and clauses.

Conjunctions by Nature

  1. Addition – And, also, too, as well, Both… and
    1. Harry is happy. Charley is happy. (1+1)
      Harry and Charley are happy.
    2. Harry is happy. Charley is happy.
      Both, Harry and Charley are happy.
  2. Opposites – But, yet
    1. Harry is happy. Charley is not happy. (1+0)
      Harry is happy but Charley is not.
  3. Exception – Yet, in spite of, despite, though, although, even though
    1. Harry is happy. He doesn’t smile. (1+?)
      Harry is happy yet he doesn’t smile.
    2. In spite of all my warnings, Harry burnt the cracker.
      Despite my warnings, Harry burnt the cracker.
    3. He bought another pen although he had fifty already.
  4. Causes & Effects – Because, So, so that
    1. Teacher scolded Radha. Radha misbehaved.
      Teacher scholded Radha because she misbehaved.
    2. I got up late. I reached school late.
      I got up late so I reached school late.
  5. When, where, as
  6. That
  7. Conditions – If, unless
    1. If Charley is happy, he will smile. (1:1)
    2. If you come, I will give you a chocolate.
    3. If Charley is not happy, he will not smile.
    4. Unless Charley is happy, he will not smile

Examples of Phrasal Conjunctions

  • After – After he gets the promotion, he will get a new office.
  • As a consequence of – As a consequence of studying hard, you will pass the exam.
  • As a result of – As a result of seismic testing, oil was discovered on Henry’s land.
  • As long as – As long as I am capable, I will ride my bike to work.
  • As soon as – The parade will start as soon as the mayor arrives.
  • Assuming that – You can get a red dress assuming that one is on sale.
  • Because – Because it is raining, we will take our umbrellas.
  • Before – She will finish the report before the meeting.
  • But for – We would have been lost but for the map.
  • Despite this – Despite this setback, we will achieve our goals.
  • Even if – Even if she loses her job, she will still have a job in education.
  • If – If you brush and floss every day, you probably won’t get cavities or gum disease.
  • If only – If only I had practiced longer, I would have made the shot.
  • In case – In case of fire, please use the stairs.
  • In order – In order to get the best price, Mary shopped at three stores.
  • In the event – In the event of the president’s death, the vice president will take his place.
  • No matter how – No matter how many excuses you have, you are grounded.
  • Now that – Now that all the supervisors are here, the meeting can begin.
  • Once – Once the chores are done, we will go to the park.
  • Only if – We will perform a few songs only if the profits go to charity.
  • On the condition that – You will get the job on the condition that you will work every other Saturday.
  • Provided – I will go to the prom with you provided you apologize.
  • Providing that – We will give you the money providing that you can pay it back within six months.
  • Since – Since it is autumn, there are many leaves on the ground.
  • So long as – So long as you eat healthy, you won’t get sick.
  • Supposing that – Supposing that you got the job, would you accept the position?
  • Therefore – The mortgage was not paid, therefore the bank foreclosed.
  • Unless – Unless you have purchased tickets already, you won’t be able to attend the show.
  • Until – No, they don’t talk to me until I talk to them.
  • When – When I get hungry, I will go to a restaurant.
  • Whenever – Whenever I eat spicy food, I get hives.
  • Wherever – Wherever there are flowers, bees will come to pollinate.
  • Whether or not – He spent all his paycheck on clothes, whether that was smart or not.
  • Yet – The picnic was interrupted by rain, yet we all had a fabulous time.

Questions for Practice

Supply the appropriate conjunctions in the blanks:

  1. She refused to write the exam _______ she had been well prepared for it.
  2. He crossed the river  _______ of my warnings.
  3. _______ the bad weather, she went out to fishing.
  4. They are very useful people  _______ no one dare to seek their help.
  5. ____ their attempts, the patient finally died.
  6. Stay here _____ I return with mom.
  7. ____ someone asks you why you are here so early in the morning, tell him that you wish to meet a friend of yours.
  8. ____ I was not interested in games, I purchased a play station for me.
  9. I will come with you for a movie ____ you promise that you will not tell this to my brother.
  10. Do you think this is something ____ can be learnt?
  11. I don’t drink coffee ____ it makes me nervous.
  12. Paula got the job ____ she had no experience.
  13. ____ my wife likes to travel abroad, I prefer to stay at home for my vacations.
  14. Jerry passed the exam first time ____ I had to retake it three times.
  15. ____ Anu doesn’t speak English, she can’t go to university in Canada.
  16. ____ it was raining, I didn’t get wet.
  17. I will be late today ____ my car has broken down.
  18. Ashima couldn’t buy any Christmas presents ____ he didn’t have any money.
  19. Stay here under the tree ____ I bring you some water.
  20. ___ it rains so heavily, we will cancel the match.
  21. She died of cancer ____ the doctors had not found that out.
  22. Merlin dances for money ____ Sherlin dances for satisfaction.
  23. Complete this work ____ I return with your question paper.
  24. We will together go to the park ____ the gates are closed.
  25. I have no idea ____ he is at home ____ not.
  26. They could not wind up the shooting _____ all the attempts made by the director and the producers.
  27. You stay with mom _____ I get in touch with dad and Max.
  28. There is no use fishing for the lost cash _____ the police suspect us.
  29. She will leave the town ____ she found a house before the end of this month.

Combine the sentences using a suitable Conjunction

  1. You may read that book. You may read this book. (Or)
  2. Boil the milk. I am chopping potatoes. (While or When?)
  3. He came late. I got some more time to sleep. (So)
  4. There was a huge tent above our head. When it rained we didn’t get wet. (So)
  5. Cook it for an hour. All the germs get killed. (So that)
  6. Thieves will enter through the back door. See if it is locked. (or else)
  7. I missed a number of catches. I was careless during the match. (Because)
  8. Sam was always the first to reach school. Sam was always the last to go home. (Not only… but also)
  9. She said that her father was a minister. She said that she was a cancer patient. (Not only… but also)
  10. Ram said he was busy. Ram said he didn’t recognize me at all. (Not only… but also)
  11. Will you sing first? Shall I sing first? (Or)
  12. He must be at the hotel at present. He must be playing football at present. (Either… or)
  13. The giant may kill all of us. The giant may run away from here. (Either… or)
  14. She was not angry with any of us. We were so rude with her. (though/even though)
  15. Harry walks in the evening. His dog Mak follows him. (Whenever)
  16. They invite poor people. They have frequent celebrations. (Whenever)
  17. Miss Heera greets me. She meets me at various places. (Wherever)
  18. Sam digs for gold. He thinks there is gold. (Wherever)
  19. Papu abuses people. He thinks they have stolen his wife. (Whoever)
  20. Complete your work. It is getting late. (Before)
  21. All the guests will leave. You will stay here. (After)

Conjunctions – Coordinating and Co-relating

  1. Coordinating Conjunctions – And, or, but, yet
  2. Co-relating Conjunctions – Either…or, Neither…nor

Fill in the blanks with and, or, nor, but, yet, so, so that.

  1. Ram is very busy ___ I am not busy at all.
  2. You either stay here ___ go.
  3. I wanted to meet you ___ I could not.
  4. She was very loving ___ she had no friends.
  5. Give me my book ___ take your bag.
  6. She was very smart ___ someone fooled her.
  7. Yesterday was a busy day for me ___ I did a lot of work.
  8. Pull that lever ___ you will see the door open!
  9. It is neither yours ___ your father’s.
  10. We arrived at 4 am ___ we missed the train.

Combine the pairs of sentences with and, or, but, yet.

  1. Ram completed his homework. Ram went out to play.
  2. Sameera borrowed three books from me. Sameera has not yet returned my books.

Combine the following pairs of sentences using Co relating conjunctions such as Either…or, Neither… nor

  1. May be Ram is here. May be Ram is there.
  2. Mary is not listening to the song. Mary is not reading the book.
  3. May be Abou is in the shop. May be Abou is in the Mosque.
  4. May be we are in America. Maybe we are in Australia.
  5. She is not my sister. She is not my friend.
  6. They are not friends. They do not hate each other.
  7. They eat vegetarian food. They eat non vegetarian food.

Fill in the blanks with proper conjunctions.

(If, unless, though/although/even though, yet, but , yet – Opposite :  And – Equal :  Because/for, as – Reason : Or – Option)

  1. ___ it was my fault, I couldn’t say sorry.
  2. She ignored her son’s laziness at work ___ once or twice she scolded him lovingly.
  3. Workers will go on striking ___ a solution is reached.
  4. The prince killed another tiger ___ he believed that one day he would be killed by a tiger.
  5. Stay here and read these magazines ___ come out for a stroll in the park.
  6. Mother will cook for you ___ you came home before 8 pm.
  7. Nokia Lumia 800 is a good phone ___ you are exceptionally lucky!
  8. You will have to wait for another three hours ___ all the trains are running late.
  9. These children study the whole day ___ they never attend a school.
  10. ___ you turn the switch off, there will be no end to the sound.
  11. The police will definitely arrest you ___ you turn the phone on.
  12. She just thanked me ___ I didn’t do any favor for her!

Combine the sentences with appropriate conjunctions:

(And – but – because – if – unless – although – As, As well as, As soon as, As much as, As long as, As far as, As if, While, since, Until, Till, That, than))

  1. She is sleeping. She cannot hear you shouting.
  2. He will cancel the trip. He really wishes to make this trip.
  3. I paid all the bills. I didn’t get my connection.
  4. Harry can do it for you. You have to contact him as early as possible.
  5. You may miss your flight to London. You should not delay any more.

Fill in the blanks with connectors

(And, but, yet, though, although, till, until, while, when, so, still, since, neither … nor, either … or, because, as, if, unless, while, both … and, lest)

  1. She refused my invitation ___ she loved to come.
  2. I ran fast ___ I missed the catch.
  3. Karan is tall ___ his younger brother is taller.
  4. Make haste ___ you will be late.
  5. She is ___ a good teacher nor a good friend.
  6. Take a torch ___ the night is very dark.
  7. Is this my book ___ yours?
  8. You can tell me ___ you like, ___ keep quiet.
  9. I called her by her nick name ___ she shouted at me.
  10. Hitesh worked hard ___ he should fail.
  11. How can you buy it ___ you have no money.
  12. My brother has eaten a lot ___ he is still hungry.
  13. My answer was neither correct ___ incorrect.
  14. He is good in ___ sports and studies.
  15. Neither my mom ___ dad said a word about it.
  16. The old lady lost ___ her money ___ bag.
  17. Catch me ___ you can!
  18. I do it ___ I like it.
  19. Water ___ oil do not mix.
  20. Wait here ___ I return.
  21. Strike ___ the iron is hot.
  22. Enter the class ___ the students are yelling.
  23. ___ he told the whole story without errors, yet he could not attract the audience.
  24. She will not come ___ it rains.
  25. Take great care ___ you should fall.

What do you think?

My Mother at Sixty Six – Kamala Das

The Invisible Man – H G Wells