- When were the early political associations formed? What were their features?
- Between 1870s and 1880.
- Led by English-educated professionals such as lawyers.
- Functioned in specific parts of India but their goals were nationwide.
- The Poona Sarvajanik Sabha,
- The Indian Association
- The Madras Mahajan Sabha
- The Bombay Presidency Association.
- How did the dissatisfaction with British rule intensify in the 1870s and in the 1880s.
- The Arms Act (1878) – Disallowed Indians to carry arms (weapons) with them.
- The Vernacular Press Act (1878) –
- The Ilbert Bill
- Formation of Indian National Congress.
- Year – December, 1885.
- Early Leaders – Dadabai Naoroji, Pherozshah Mehta, W C Bonnerji, Surendranath Bannerji
- Founders – A O Hume, a retired British official
- The First President – W C Bonnerji
- Moderate Vs Extremist phases.
|Moderate Phase||Extremist Phase|
|Time Period – 1885 – 1905||1905 Onwards|
List 3 early movements of Mahatma Gandhi.
What was Rawlatt Act?
- Rawlatt Act curbed Fundamental Rights.
- Strengthened police powers.
How did the Indian nationalists protest against Rawlatt Act?
- “Devilish” and “Tyrannical“
- Gandhiji asked Indian people to observe 6 April 1919 as a day of non-violent opposition to this act as a day of humiliation and prayer and hartal.
- Satyagraha Sabhas were set up to launch the movement.
- The nationalists tried to ensure that Hindus and Muslims remained united.
How did the British suppress Rawlatt Satyagraha?
- The British government used brutal measures to suppress the satyagrahis.
- General Dyer massacred several satyagrahis in Jalianwala Bagh on Baisakhi festival, 13th April.
How did Rabindranath Tagore react to the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre?
- Rabindranath Tagore expressed the pain and anger of the country by renouncing/returning his Knighthood.
What was the Khilafat issue?
- In 1920, the British imposed a harsh treaty upon the Turkish Sultan or Khalifa.
- People (?) were furious about this as they had been furious about the Jalianwala Bagh incidents.
- Indian Muslims wanted the Khalifa to be allowed to get his control over Muslim sacred places in the Turkish Empire (Ottoman Empire).
Name the leaders of the Khilafat agitation (issue) in India.
- Mohammad Ali
- Shaukat Ali
- Mahatma Gandhi (Supporter)
What were the aims of the non-cooperation movement.
- To campaign against the Jalianwala Bagh Massacre.
- To campaign against the Khilafat Issue.
- To demand Swaraj (Self-Rule)
Briefly explain the course of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
- Became famous from 1921 to 1922.
- Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges.
- The following lawyers gave up their legal practice:
- Motilal Nehru
- C R Das
- C Rajagopalachari
- Asaf Ali
- British titles were surrendered.
- Boycotted Legislatures.
- People lit public bonfires of foreign clothes.
- Import of foreign clothes fell drastically between 1920 and 1922.
Why was the movement suddenly called off (stopped)
- In February, 1922, police fired on the peaceful demonstration of a crowd of peasants.
- The angry crowd set fire to a police station in Chauri Chaura.
- 22 Policemen were killed.
- Shocked, Mahatma Gandhi called off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
What was the Simon Commission?
- Sir Simon
- No Indian representative
- “Simon Go Back”
Why did Indian protest against the Simon Commission?
What was the importance of the 1929 Session of the Congress?
- Place – Lahore
- President – Jawaharlal Nehru
- Resolution – “Purna Swaraj (Complete Independence)
- Decision – “26 January, 1930 – Indian Independence Day.”
Why did Gandhiji want to lead a march to break the Salt Law?
- Salt Law – Only British government had the monopoly to manufacture and sell salt.
- Salt very essential for food.
- It is sinful to impose tax on salt.
- Salt is needed by the rich and the poor, Hindus and Muslims.
- Gandhiji declared that he would lead a march to break this law.
Explain the Dandi March.
- Gandhi and followers marched 240 miles from Sabarmati (Ashram) to the coastal town of Dandi.
- They broke the government law by gathering natural salt found on the seashore.
- They boiled sea-water to produce salt.
What were the important provisions of the Government of India Act 1935?
- Provincial Autonomy for 11 Provinces.
- Elections to the Provincial legislature in 1937.
- Congress formed governments in 7 out of 11 Provinces.
Discuss the Quit India Movement.
- When – August 1942, in the middle of the WWII.
- Aim – The British must quit India, immediately.
- Slogan – “Do or die in effort to fight the British but you should do it non-violently.”
- Gandhiji and other leaders
- Course of the Movement
- Communications and symbols of state authority were attacked all over the country
- In many areas, people set up their own government.
- Severe repressions
- Large number of people were arrested and killed in police firing
What was the Cabinet Mission?
- March, 1946